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景德镇古窑民俗博览区
发表时间:2012-11-21 来源:江西旅游政务网 作者: 字体: [打印] [关闭]

景德镇古窑民俗博览区位于景德镇市瓷都大道古窑路1号(伊龙大酒店旁),国家AAAA级景区、国家级文化产业示范基地、国家级非物质文化遗产生产性保护示范基地。景区距机场、高速路口、火车站车程均在十分钟左右,是景德镇陶瓷文化旅游的首选景区,可让您深切体会到瓷都历史文化的博大精深。

历代古窑展示区内有古代制瓷作坊、世界上最古老制瓷生产作业线、清代镇窑、明代葫芦窑、元代馒头窑、宋代龙窑、风火
仙师庙、瓷行等景点,向人们展示了古代瓷业建筑,明清时期景德镇手工制瓷的工艺过程以及传统名瓷精品。

陶瓷民俗展示区以十二栋明、清时期古建筑为中心的民俗景区内有陶瓷民俗陈列、天后宫、瓷碑长廊、水上舞台瓷乐演奏等
景观。

水岸前街创意休憩区内有昌南问瓷、三闾庙码头、耕且陶焉、前瓷今生、木瓷前缘等瓷文化创意休闲景观。

在这里,我们与您共同探索中国千年陶瓷文化的脉络。    

Jingdezhen Ancient Kiln  Folk Customs Museum is located on No.1, Ancient Kiln Road, Porcelain Capital Avenue,Jingdezhen City (next to Yilong Hotel).It is national AAAA scenic spot, national cultural industry demonstration base,national intangible cultural heritage productive protection and demonstration base.It is ten minutes away by car from the airport, high-speed intersection and railway station to the spot. So it is the first choice in Jingdezhen where you can fully appreciate the profound porcelain history and culture.
In exhibition area of ancient kilns of past dynasties,there are ancient porcelain workshops, the world's most
ancient porcelain production lines, Jingdezhen kiln of Qing Dynasty, Gourd kiln of Ming Dynasty, Steamed bun kiln of Yuan Dynasty, Dragon Kiln of Song Dynasty, Wind & Fire Immortal Temple, Porcelain Stores,etc.The attractions show you the ancient porcelain industry architectures,the porcelain craft processes of the Ming and Qing Dynasties as well as traditional porcelain treasures.
In exhibition area of ceramics folk customs,there are twelve Ming and Qing Dynasties ancient buildings
including displays of ceramic folk customs, Tin Hau Temple, ceramics tablet gallery,musical performances by ceramic instrument on water stage and other landscapes.
In the ceramic arts leisure section,there are Ceramics Art in Changnan,Ancient Port of Sanlu
Temple,Cultivation and Ceramics and other porcelain cultural and creative leisure landscape.
Here, we explore the essence of the Chinese Millennium ceramic culture with you together.

 

景德镇古窑民俗博览区全景图

 

瓷音水榭


景德镇瓷乐团于1985年成功地研制了以瓷盘为主要材料的新型民族打击乐器“瓷瓯”,先后获得国家发明银奖和文化部科技成
果奖。这套瓷乐器采用优质瓷土按专业乐器技术要求精致制作,演奏起来清晰悦耳、美妙动听,是景德镇瓷乐器“声如磬”的集中体现,具有音质纯正优美,音域音量适中和音准校定后不受气温影响而较稳定等特点,属于世界首创。瓷乐团第一次在“99”昆明世博会上亮相,立即引起轰动。2000年,时任外交部部长的钱其琛同志听完瓷乐后,欣然题词“奇瓷神韵”。近年来,瓷乐团先后赴日本、俄罗斯等十几个国家和地区演出,所到之处,均受到热烈欢迎。

In 1985, our band successfully developed the new ethnic percussion “Porcelain Ou” adopting ceramic plates as its main material, which has won national invention silver medal and the Science and Technology Achievement Award granted by Ministry of Culture successively. This set of ceramic musical instruments was exquisitely made by adopting top-quality clay and living up to the requirements of professional musical instrument t technology. When it is played, it makes clear, sweet and beautiful sound, which is a concentrated expression of the characteristic of “musical porcelain” of Jingdezhen’s porcelains. It has a pure and beautiful sound, moderate range and volume, and stable and free of the impact by air temperature, currently being the original in the world. The ceramic music band first struck its pose on the stage in “1999” Kunming World Expo, and immediately caused a sensation. In 2000, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs at that time, Qian Qichen, was pleased to inscribe “unique porcelain, wonderful charm” after he listened to the porcelain music. In recent years, the band has been to a dozen of countries like Japan and Russia to perform the music, and has been warmly welcomed wherever it went.

瓷音水榭

明代葫芦窑

葫芦窑为景德镇葫芦形柴烧瓷窑的简称,古人说其“窑形似卧地葫芦,前大后小”。葫芦窑为景德镇特有的瓷窑,最早出现于元末明初,直到清初出现了蛋形窑(镇窑)后才逐渐停止使用。明代宋应星的《天工开物》对景德镇的葫芦窑有专门的文字记载,并配有插图。

明代葫芦窑兼备了宋元时期龙要和馒头窑的优点,烧成技艺有了长足的进步,对整个明代景德镇制瓷业发展和清代镇窑的形成做出
了杰出的贡献。

The Gourd Kiln is the shortened form of the gourd-shaped firewood kiln in Jingdezhen. The ancients said that “the kiln shape is like a lying gourd, with the large front and small rear”. The Gourd Kiln is a unique kind of ceramic kiln only found in Jingdezhen. It first appeared in the end of Yuan Dynasty and in the early Ming Dynasty, which had been gradually stopped to use until the emergence of egg-shaped kiln (town kiln) in early Qing Dynasty. The gourd kiln in Jingdezhen was specifically recorded with illustrations in a famous book of Ming Dynasty, “Exploitation of the Works of Nature” written by Song Yingxing.

The Gourd Kiln in Ming Dynasty has both the advantages of the Dragon Kiln and Steamed Bun Kiln in Song and Yuan Dynasties, and its firing skills had made great progress, which made an outstanding contribution to Jingdezhen’s porcelain-making development throughout Ming Dynasty, and to the formation of Town Kiln in Qing Dynasty.

 

葫芦窑复烧夜景

 

清代镇窑

清代镇窑(简称“镇窑”)为我国传统窑炉中独具风格的瓷窑。窑房是穿逗式木构架建筑。窑炉位置约占窑房四分之一的面积,除去窑炉所占空间,其余约为两层结构。底层为装匣、开窑之用。二层柴楼主要用来贮备松柴。整座窑炉棚顶,与无梁殿内顶部相似,属砖砌成的拱形结构顶棚,高大的烟囱用单砖砌成,其砌筑技巧令人信服。它的烧成室型呈一头大一头小的长椭圆形,进窑门处宽而高,靠近烟囱则逐渐狭窄矮小,故有“鸭蛋形窑”之称。全长15---20米,容积为300立方米左右,最高处6米上下。烧炼以松柴为燃料(故又称“柴窑”),火焰长而灰分少,且不含有害物体,适宜烧还原焰,对于白瓷,青花瓷,颜色釉等的釉面呈色效果良好。按照窑位各部位火焰流动及其温度分布情况,可以分别装烧高、中、低火候的瓷坯。

景德镇窑是迄今保存最完整,最具价值的古窑瓷窑。2000年7月25日,由江西省人民政府公布为省级重点文物保护单位。

Jingdezhen Kiln (with the shortened form of “Town Kiln”) is a kind of kiln with unique style in China’s traditional kilns.
The kiln chamber was built by taking the cross wooden frame. The kiln location takes up about a quarter of thearea of the kiln chamber. The space is two-story structure except the space occupied by the kiln chamber. The bottom layer is for loading and opening the kiln. The two-story firewood chamber is mainly for storing pine firewood. The whole roof of the kiln resembles the top of the inside beamless hall, belonging to arch-frame roof made of bricks. The tall chimney is made of single brick, with its convincing building skills. The shape of its firing chamber presents a long oval shape with one large end and one small end. The place close to the kiln entrance is wide and high, but the part close to the chimney becomes gradually narrow and short, so it has the name of “duck-egg shaped kiln”. It has a total length of 15 to 20 meters, with a volume of about 300 cubic meters and the top height of about 6 meters. It takes pine firewood as the fuel (therefore it is also known as “firewood kiln”), and its flame is long with less ash content, besides, it contains no harmful substances, suitable for the restoring flame. It makes good glaze coloring effect for white porcelain, blue and white porcelain, colored glaze, etc. According to the flame flows and temperature distribution of various parts of the kiln, it can also make porcelain bodies with high, medium and low level of firing separately.

Jingdezhen Kiln is by far the best preserved and the most valuable kiln. On July 25, 2000, it was ranked the provincial key cultural relics protection unit by Jiangxi Provincial People’s Government.

 

镇窑复烧夜景


宋代龙窑
龙窑为我国传统陶瓷窑炉之一,窑炉依山势倾斜砌筑,形状似龙而得名。龙窑结构简单,分窑头、窑床、窑尾三部分。窑头设有单独的火膛,其余燃烧室均在窑床的通道内,投柴口设在两侧窑墙上的拱脚处,对称排列。一般以茅草、树枝等为燃料。其优点是造价低、装烧量大,并可充分利用余热。利用自然山坡建造,火焰抽力大,并可形成烧造青瓷、影青瓷的还原气氛。龙窑为景德镇宋代瓷业的兴盛作出了杰出贡献。景德镇湖田、瑶里、丽阳等多处发现有宋代龙窑遗址。

The Dragon Kiln is one of the traditional ceramic kilns in China, which is built in a tilted way along the slope of the mountain, with a shape like a dragon, so it got such a name. The Dragon Kiln has a simple structure, and is divided into three parts, kiln head, kiln bed and kiln end. The kiln head has a separate fire chamber, and the rest of the firing chambers are set inside the channel of the kiln bed. The firewood feeding opening is located at the arch foot on both sides of the kiln wall, symmetrically arranged. Generally, it takes couch grass and tree branches as fuels, with advantages of low cost, large burning capacity and taking full advantage of waste heat. It is built by making use of the natural hillside with great flame pumping power, which can also form the restoring atmosphere of firing celadon porcelain and shadow celadon porcelain. The Dragon Kiln has made an outstanding contribution to the prosperity of Jingdezhen’s ceramic business in Song Dynasty. A number of archaeological sites of Dragon Kilns in Song Dynasty have been found in many areas of Jingdezhen, such as Hutian, Yaoli, Liyang, etc.


元代馒头窑

馒头窑为景德镇宋元明时期使用的典型瓷窑之一,以窑形近似馒头而得名。有的馒头窑窑床的平面呈马蹄形,故又称马蹄形窑。馒头窑属半倒焰式窑炉,火焰自火膛喷向窑顶,再倒向窑床,烟气从排烟口、竖烟道、经烟囱排出窑外。烧成温度可高达一千三百度,并可形成还原气氛。经景德镇窑工的不断探索,元明馒头窑的营造技艺和烧成技艺达到了我国传统瓷业此类窑炉的最高水平。


The Steamed Bun Kiln is one of the typical kilns of Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties in Jingdezhen, which was so called because its kiln shape was like a steamed bun. The bed surfaces of some steamed bun kilns are horseshoe-shaped, so they are also called the horseshoe-shaped kilns. The steamed bun kiln belongs to partially converted flame kiln, with its flame sprouted from the fire chamber to the kiln top, and then falls down to the kiln bed. The flue gas is discharged from the exhaust port and the vertical flue of the kiln through chimneys. The firing temperature can be up to 1300 degrees Celsius, and it can form the restoring atmosphere. With the continuous exploration and efforts by Jingdezhen kiln workers, the shaping and firing techniques of the steamed bun kiln in Yuan and Ming dynasties have achieved the highest level among such kind of kilns in China’s traditional ceramic industry.

 

馒头窑夜景

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